Primary amyloidosis, also called amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis or primary systemic amyloidosis, is the most common form of systemic amyloidosis. Typically, it occurs as a complication of multiple myeloma. Primary amyloidosis is a devastating disease in which a population of certain bone-marrow cells produces a mutant form of an antibody. The disease affects 1 in 100,000 people annually and the median survival after diagnosis is 3 years. Current treatment options are chemotherapy and bone-marrow transplantation.