Type-2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, comprising ~90% of all cases and affecting over 530 million people around the world. It is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. It is also the most prevalent amyloidosis. In type-2 diabetes, a small protein called islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin forms toxic aggregates that lead to destruction of β-cells in the pancreas—the cells that produce insulin. A synthetic analogue of human IAPP called pramlintide (brand name, Symlin), which does not aggregate, is used as therapy for type-2 diabetes. In addition, experiments in animal models directed against IAPP aggregation have found that such strategies have beneficial therapeutic effects.